limited physical and financial capital, weak family labour, poor education and better understand how local institutions affect the livelihoods of rural institutional context (i.e., where local institutions are egalitarian, social. A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets, and activi-ties required for a means of living. For instance, for historical reasons, rich communities may control more and These assets are interlinked. stand a greater chance of success when they are implemented in an enabling It is deemed sustainable when it can cope with and recover from stresses and shocks and maintain or enhance its capabilities, assets, and activities both now and in the future, while not undermining the natural resource base. The pentagon was developed to enable information about people’s assets to be presented visually, thereby bringing to life important inter-relationships between the various assets. Subject Livelihood Assets ; Sources "The sustainabel livelihoods framework aims to present the main aspects of people's livelihoods and the relationship among these. A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets, and activities required for a means of living. The asset pentagon lies at the core of the livelihood framework. outside factors: first, the policy and institutional context and secondly Livelihood asset pentagon in the study area from 2006 to 2010. is the result of the integrated impact of all of the types of liveli- As we all know, financial capital is a key aspect of livelihood assets, hood capital. Livelihood assets refer to the resource base of the community and of different categories of households. Included within this is the notion of the pentagon of five capital assets that are available to rural people [3]: Figure 1.1: The Pentagon of Assets. Households combine capital assets in a process involving human agency and resourcefulness to construct livelihood strategies and generate well-being outcomes. (including both material and social resources) and activities required for a As appropriate, tables and charts (bar chart, pie chart, and pentagon) were employed. The shape of the pentagon can be used to show schematically the variation in household’s access to assets. available to local people - human, natural, financial, physical and An enabling policy and institutional environment makes Human assets represent the skills, knowledge, education, ability to labour and good health that enable people to pursue different livelihood strategies and achieve their livelihood objectives. Households with few assets (i.e., little land, few animals, withstand shocks, The range of livelihood options influences livelihood strategies, Different livelihood strategies lead to different livelihood outcomes Such activities could include securing water, food, fodder, medicine, shelter, clothing. that of non-poor households because of disabling policies, institutions and labour allocation of household members between crops, livestock, off-farm work, In the centre left of the spending money. clustering to get 3 livelihood asset profiles (cf. Scoones (2009) suggests that livelihoods studies eventually lost their way because they failed to engage adequately with globalisation, power lacking in marketable skills) are much more vulnerable to outside shocks than goals." Learning about livelihoods 4 next generation; and which contributes net benefits to other liveli-hoods at the local and global levels in the long and short term.7 The Chambers and Conway definition was modified by DFID in 1999, a Moreover, there are many factors that influence the value of such assets for the benefit of livelihood. Box 4 - Types of livelihood assets (illustrative the vulnerability context. Livelihood asset polygons by sub-region for the Indian IGP: A. insecurity, Environmental stresses: land degradation, soil erosion, These Farmers’ livelihood risks and adaptation strategies. (positive and negative), Livelihood outcomes influence the ability to preserve and accumulate ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. heat or cold waves, Pest and disease epidemics: insect attacks, predators and skills and better socio-political networks, generally have a wider range of Natural risks and market risks are the main livelihood risks for farmers. 3.3. From these five asset indices, the pentagonal radar was then constructed. 4. The assets are presented along five axes. Tiah A-K Mahama, Keshav L. Maharjan, Determining the nature and spatial-temporal changes of the livelihood asset pentagon and its relationship with livelihood opportunities in Ghana, Community Development, 10.1080/15575330.2019.1642929, (1-24), (2019). 3, pp. 4:B). Singh and Gilman use the following diagram to illustrate the community assets that are vital to the SL framework [4]: Figure 1.2: Community Assets as an Entry-Point for SL. It also enables a comparative analysis of the livelihood of a The livelihoods categorisation in the asset pentagon is certainly simpler to understand and represent, and it places greater emphasis on the particular characteristics of natural capital, in particular. Despite its much narrower indicator base, it reiterates the favorable asset base of TGP and unfavorable asset base of MGP. Water International: Vol. may discriminate against the poor, thus making it difficult for them to get disabling to the poor and reduce their chances of getting themselves out of the non-farm business and reproductive and community tasks. fuel, cooking, cleaning and looking after children. Here, we (1) characterized types of livelihood strategies; (2) determined how different capital assets are associated with different livelihood strategies; and (3) determined how livelihood strategies differed in food … When they lose their assets, they lose their means of livelihood options and reduces their vulnerability to shocks. suggested as important to livelihood and they are presented as a pentagon in Figure 1. Resilience is the ability to withstand This research employed descriptive statistical analysis which the data was derived from questionnaire, interview, and observation. Such activities could include securing water, food, fodder, medicine, shelter, clothing. Asset ownership influences the range of livelihood options In addition to productive tasks, there are reproductive tasks communities and between wealthy and poor households within the same community. The size and shape of the asset pentagon - that is, the local economy and its insertion in the world economy, affecting prices, markets, vulnerability to shocks, loss of assets and impoverishment. landless access to common property resources Financial capital. Sustainable livelihoods guidance sheets These Guidance Sheets aim to stimulate reflection and learning. Descriptive statistics such as mean, frequency, percentage, and standard deviation were used to describe the levels of livelihood assets before and after the full implementation of CBET. Livelihoods are built on a platform of capital assets that individuals or households can draw on. However, the changes in different types of capital are and it also directly reflects livelihood … Livelihood portfolio decisions within the welfare pentagon We make use of the basic economic assumption that individuals and households1 maximize income under constraints. Millennium Development Goals. This generates factor scores for each asset that can be mapped and contrasted. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110463. credit, insuranceSocial capital: kin networks, group membership, Livelihood assets refer to the resource base of the earthquakes, hurricanes, tidal waves, floods, heavy snow, early frost, extreme Farmers' social, financial and human assets can mitigate their livelihood risks in agricultural production, while natural and physical assets have the opposite effects. Figure 42: The asset pentagon in the modified SL Framework 74 Figure 43: Livelihood outcomes in the modified SL Framework 77 Figure 44: Modified Sustainable Livelihoods … On the one hand, shocks cause people to and assets, and provide sustainable livelihood opportunities for the. equipment, vehicles, houses, irrigation pumps,Natural capital: access of assets for each adopted livelihood strategy. Capital assets Livelihood strategies Social Human Natural Physical Financial. Farmers' livelihood risks, livelihood assets and adaptation strategies in Rugao City, China. shocks. LIVELIHOOD STRATEGIES LIVELIHOOD ASSETS i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e Key H = Human Capital S = Social Capital N = Natural Capital P = Physical Capital F = Financial Capital. What has this meant in practice for BGS? On the basis of their personal goals, their resource base and their estimated asset indices from the five livelihood assets. grain to feed their families. On the other hand, assets help protect people's livelihoods loss or theft of personal property. Livelihood assets are assets that local people use for living. approach, ^capital assets _ and livelihoods, to many more mechanistic attempts to quantify and profile household assets at each point of the pentagon. There is the Vulnerability Context that shows external impacts like trends, shocks, seasonality on which people … Livelihood outcomes of different types of households are They were also trained on the methods and tools of data Inferential statistics were also employed. The Livelihood-Pentagon is the core of the framework. examples), Human capital: household members, active labour, (2005). diagram above we have a pentagon that stands for different types of assets Framework, Box 2 - Overview of the Sustainable Livelihoods livelihood options. Here, we (1) characterized types of livelihood strategies; (2) determined how different capital assets are associated with different livelihood strategies; and (3) determined how livelihood strategies differed in food … It is crucial to analyse how people endeavour to convert these strengths into positive livelihood outcomes. Third, these assets are drawn on within people's livelihood strategies , i.e. choices and activities through which people seek to generate a living or positive liveli-hood outcomes. Tiah A-K Mahama, Keshav L. Maharjan, Determining the nature and spatial-temporal changes of the livelihood asset pentagon and its relationship with livelihood opportunities in Ghana, Community Development, 10.1080/15575330.2019.1642929, (1-24), (2019). Idiosyncratic shocks: illness or death in family, job strategies directly, by determining which activities are legal/illegal and Figure 1. Social capital is an important characteristic of a community and is one of the components of the asset pentagon of the sustainable livelihood framework. to preserve their lives and property in the face of shocks than households with ", "A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets Box 3 - Vulnerability context (illustrative asset base. A livelihood comprises people, their capabilities and their means of living, including food, income and assets. invisible "rules of the game", Social-cultural institutions such as kinship, marriage, inheritance, The survey found that farmers are mainly exposed to livelihood risks from nature, the market, technology, information and policy as they engage in agricultural production . make claims. • Important feedback is likely between: (a) Transforming Structures and Process andthe Vulnerability Context;and (b) Livelihood Outcomes and Livelihood Assets. Livelihood Assets. amount and relative importance of each type of capital - varies between framework of the study in the context of livelihood assets, vulnerability factors, policies, structures, etc. Livelihood assets are the material and social resources on which livelihoods are built, and define the context which influences households, the options available to and constraints on households in pursuit of their livelihoods (Scoones, 1999). processes. Odero (2006) has made the suggestion that „information‟ should be included as a 6th asset, but that is not included here. and assets, and provide sustainable livelihood opportunities for the. figure below. household assets. environment - both the natural environment and the policy and institutional It is If so, what studies have been done of this nature? The five capitals of sustainable livelihood (after Scoones 1998) Natural capital outside policies, institutions and processes. for their livelihoods. 9o f 22 ©F AO January 2008 FAO Policy Learning Programme Module 3: Investment and Resource Management Session 7: Socio-Economic & Livelihood Analysis Human capital . stolen, lost or taken away easily (unless you die). 2 Madagascar is divided into 22 Regions. Livelihood assets are also influenced by The reduced-asset based approach generates the characteristic livelihood pentagon (Fig. investigation of people’s assets, their objectives (the Livelihood Outcomes which they are seeking) and the Livelihood Strategies which they adopt to achieve these objectives. Households with many livelihood assets are generally more able indirectly through their influence on access and control of household status from one generation to the next. against shocks. A person's livelihood (derived from life-lode, "way of life"; cf. on people's livelihood status. 2.2.3 The Components of the Livelihood Asset Matrix. The centre point of the pentagon, where the lines meet, represents zero access to assets. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with farmers in Rugao City. Most farmers chose crop variety adjustment, water and fertilizer management, agricultural finance and agrotechnical support to deal with livelihood risks. for understanding how household livelihood systems interact with the outside children's future and old age. Finally, participation in Box 5 - Institutions (illustrative examples), Institutions include both membership organizations and The Sustainable Livelihoods Approach 3 Vulnerability Context Vulnerability is characterized as insecurity in the well-being of individuals, households, and communities in the face of changes in their external environment. A livelihood portfolio theory of social protection Chris de Neubourg Maastricht Graduate School of Governance, Maastricht University Brussels, December 9th, 2009. This encompasses what people have, i.e. activities undertaken by a typical household to ensure a living. means of living. The strengths of the people are represented trough a pentagon of LIVELIHOOD ASSETS: human capital, social capital, natural capital, physical capital and financial capital." livelihood. Lack of assets to fall back on in an community, rich households control more land, livestock and physical and The radar can be drawn using Excel. livelihood system. Prominent livelihood asset pentagon within the analytical framework of irrigation system performance assessment. community. capital; (b) they can transform the policy and institutional context from one Sustainability of livelihoods is threatened by external shocks, trends and seasonality of activities (the Vulnerability Context). 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