Satisfaction guaranteed on all items offered by Central Street Books. It had either been burned by the Mormons or consumed by their cavalry. Similar Items. For their pay they were to depend on the action of Congress. Colonel Alexander had arrived at the place of rendezvous some days previously, being no nearer Salt Lake City November 3d than he had been a month before. A new species of tent, which had just been introduced, was served out for its winter dwellings. It burns with a lively, ruddy flame, and gives out an intense heat. The work of unloading the trains commenced, and after careful computation the Chief Commissary determined, that, by an abridgment of the ration, diminishing the daily issue of flour, and issuing bacon only once a week, his supplies would last until the first of June. Much better known than the Rivera expedition, the travels of Fathers Francisco Atanasio Dominguez and Silvestre Velez de Escalante have left the name of the latter on a number of Utah sites. {{Citation | title=The Utah expedition, 1857-1858 : letters of Capt. On the day of Captain Marcy’s departure, Governor Cumming issued a proclamation, declaring the Territory to be in a state of rebellion, and commanding the traitors to lay down their arms and return to their homes. He set forth sound ideas on water in the arid West and how the land should be developed. For in-stance, the editors chose to ignore the immediate causes of friction between the United States government and the people of Utah. The New York Times Archives. Ogden, Utah, 1985. The loss of three trains more would reduce the troops to the verge of starvation before spring, in case of inability to reach Salt Lake Valley. They crossed the Green River Mountains, breaking the crust of the snow and leading their animals, being reduced at the time to tallow and roots for their own sustenance. Had the Mormons burned the next three trains upon the road, they would have destroyed all the clothing intended for the expedition. The Utah expedition faculty consists of 10 doctors with a range of PHD’s making it one of the largest faculties i2p has ever had on an expedition! This correspondence was now abruptly terminated by Colonel Johnston. The whole camp, at this time, was a scene of confusion and bustle. The decision to replace Governor Young was inevitable, given the national reaction to the Church's 1852 announcement of plural marriage and Republican charges in the campaign of 1856 that the Democrats favored the "twin relics of barbarism"-polygamy and slavery. Captain Marcy was the officer selected to lead in the arduous expedition. In these rites, which are symbolical of the mystery of procreation, both sexes participate, clad in loose flowing robes of white linen, with cleansed bodies and anointed hair. It announced, also, that proceedings would he instituted against the offenders, in a court to be organized in the county by Judge Eckels, which would supersede the necessity of appointing a military commission for that purpose. The civil officers of the Territory fixed their quarters in a little nook in the wood above the military camp. The regiment of dragoons was detailed to guard them. As it was, upon searching those trains, only one hundred and fifty pairs of boots and shoes and six hundred pairs of stockings were found provided for an army of two thousand men, and some of the soldiers already had nothing but moccasins to cover their feet, with the thermometer at 16° below zero, — while there were found one thousand leather neck-stocks and three thousand bed-sacks, articles totally useless. Utah Expedition could have benefited from additional work. Immediately upon the news of this attack reaching Hams Fork, Colonel Alexander, who had then assumed the command-in-chief; dispatched Captain Marcy, of the Fifth Infantry, with four hundred men, to afford assistance to the trains, and punish the aggressors, if possible. According to their standard of morality and taste, the rites of the Endowment are devoid of immodesty. Colonel Johnston had already determined, while in the South Pass, that it would be impracticable to cross the Wahsatch range until spring, and shaped his arrangements accordingly. There were some casualties, mostly non … However, the Move South continued, probably because the government representatives insisted that Johnston's troops must be admitted but were unable to guarantee that they would come in peacefully. The troops detailed for the service were the Fifth Infantry, then busy fighting Billy Bowlegs among the everglades of Florida, — the Tenth Infantry, which was stationed at the forts in Upper Minnesota, — the Second Dragoons, which was among the forces assembled at Fort Leavenworth, to be used, if necessary, in Kansas, at the requisition of Governor Walker, — and Phelps’s light-artillery battery, the same which so distinguished itself at Buena Vista, under the command of Captain Washington. At a meeting in the Tabernacle, at which the Captain was present on the platform, when Brigham Young called on the audience for an expression of opinion, every hand was raised in favor of the policy of resistance, and in expression of willingness, if it should become necessary, to abandon harvest and homestead, retreat with the women to the mountains, and wage there a war of extermination. The news of the stoppage of the mail reached Salt Lake Valley July 24th, an eventful anniversary in the history of Mormonism. Join us on our best overland adventure yet: Expedition Utah. The three United States judges, Kinney, Drummond, and Stiles, were presented to the public stripped of all judicial sanctity; — Kinney, the Chief Justice, as the keeper of a grocery-store, dance-room, and boarding-house, enforcing the bills for food and lodging against his brethren of the law by expulsion from the bar in case of non-payment, and so tenacious of life, that, before departing from the Territory, he solicited and received from Brigham Young a patriarchal blessing; Drummond, as an amorous horse-jockey, who had taken to Utah, as his mistress, a drab from Washington, and seated her beside him once upon the bench of the court; Stiles as himself a Mormon, so far as the possession of two wives could make him one. In it lies the root of the evasion, and finally subversion, of Federal authority which occasioned the recent military expedition to Utah. dk, green publisher's cloth, bright gold title on spine, dk. The Utah Expedition 1857-1858 - Letters of Capt. In the first place, an opinion was solicited from General Scott as to the feasibility of the undertaking until the next year. It was on the 24th of July, 1847, that Brigham Young entered the Valley from the East, and the day had always afterwards been kept as a holiday of the Church. To understand the movements which followed, it is necessary to describe briefly the topography of the country between Green River and the Great Salt Lake. Property was almost equally distributed among the people, the leaders being as poor as their disciples. Renowned as one of the great adventurers and scientists of his day, Powell became the second director of the U.S. Geological Survey. Newberry, John S. Report of the exploring expedition from Santa Fe, New Mexico, to the junction of the Grand and Green Rivers of the great Colorado of the West, in 1859: under the command of Capt. The Utah Expedition 1857-1858: A Documentary Account of the United States Military Movement under Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston, and The Resistance by Brigham Young and the Mormon Nauvoo Legion. Nearly a fortnight had been consumed in accomplishing less than thirty miles. The opening at the top caused a draught, by means of which a fire could be kept up beneath the tripod without choking the inmates with smoke. After leaving the Dolores River, they ventured into unknown country. Mike and I along with friends from Expedition Utah head for the desert for a weekend overland trip. The Utah expedition, 1857-1858, 1958(hdg. It is time to return to the States and record what had been transpiring there, in connection with the expedition, while the army was staggering towards its permanent winter-camp. The absence of dragoons prevented a dispersion of these banditti. At the distance of about two hundred miles from the Missouri frontier the soil becomes so pervaded by sand, that only scientific agriculture can render it available. The dividing ridge between the waters of the Atlantic and Pacific is reached in the South Pass, at the foot of a spur of the Wind River range, a group of gigantic mountains, whose peaks reach three thousand feet above the line of perpetual snow. A system of polytheism has been ingrafted on the creed, according to which there are grades among the Gods, there being no Supreme Ruler of all, but the primeval Adam of Genesis being the deity highest in spiritual rank, and Christ, Mahomet, Joseph Smith, and, finally, Brigham Young, partaking also of divinity. Genre/Form: History: Additional Physical Format: Online version: Gove, Jesse A. BYU Studies 33:1 (1993):201-202. See this page in the original 1992 publication. One of the first and most important of Colonel Johnston’s duties was to provide for the keeping, during the winter, of the mules and horses which survived. It could be seen as persecution … describes the return journey of the Utah Expedition sent out by President Buchanan against the Mormons in 1857. It had been satisfactorily established, that the Mormons, acting under the influence of leaders to whom they seemed to have surrendered their judgment, refused to be controlled by any other authority; that they had been often advised to obedience, and these friendly counsels had been answered with defiance; that officers of the Federal Government had been driven from the Territory for no offence except an effort to do their sworn duty, while others had been prevented from going there by threats of assassination; that judges had been interrupted in the performance of their functions, and the records of their courts seized, and either destroyed or concealed; and, finally, that many other acts of unlawful violence had been perpetrated, and the right to repeat them openly claimed by the leading inhabitants, with at least the silent acquiescence of nearly all the rest of the population. Yet if General Knox could be roused from his grave at Thomaston, he would see the dream realized. The consequence was, that in the wagons which were burned were contained all the mechanics’ implements, stationery, and horse-medicines, although the loss of the latter was not to be regretted. 2008); capital, Salt Lake City; statehood, Jan. 4, 1896 (45). But, unwilling to take the trouble to assign to each train a proportionate quantity of all the articles to be transported, he had packed one after another with just such things as lay most conveniently at hand. He resolved to establish winter-quarters in the vicinity of Fort Bridger, and on the 6th of November the advance towards that post commenced. To be sure, an assemblage of members of both sexes, clad in white shifts, with oiled and dishevelled hair, in a room fitted up in resemblance of a garden, to witness a performance of the allegory of Adam and Eve in Eden, which is conducted so as to be sensually symbolic, is not suggestive of refined ideas; but it is necessary to take into consideration the character both of performers and witnesses, which is not distinguished in any way by delicacy. There is persuasive evidence, however, that Brigham Young never intended to force a military showdown. The march was attended with the severest hardships. The Utah Expedition (1857-1858) was a bloodless military conflict between the Mormon militia, referred to as the Nauvoo Legion, and the Unites States government over the installation of a new governor in the Utah Territory. He decided to send them all to Henry’s Fork, thirty-five miles south of Fort Bridger, where he had at one time designed to encamp with the whole army. in some sort, the aspect of retributive justice. He passed the troops in the vicinity of Port Laramie. President Young announced on March 23, 1858, that all settlements in northern Utah must be abandoned and prepared for burning if the army came in. On the 20th of November, Colonel Cooke reached the camp with a command entirely incapacitated for active service. THE UTAH EXPEDITION. In the absence of General Harney, each separate detachment constituted an independent command. The only known mode of avoiding a passage through this gorge was by a circuitous route, following the eastern slope of the rim of the Great Basin northward, more than a hundred miles, to Soda Springs, at the northern bend of Bear River, the principal tributary of the Salt Lake, — then crossing the rim along the course of the river, and pursuing its valley southward, and that of the Roseaux or Malade, into Salt Lake Valley. Shambles were erected, to which the poor half-starved animals were driven by hundreds to be butchered. In total ignorance that the standard of rebellion had already been raised, General Harney, in the beginning of August, detached Captain Van Vliet, the Quarter-master on his staff, to proceed rapidly to Utah to make arrangements for the reception of the army in the Valley. Their narrative, however, formed a most spicy chapter in the annals of official scandal. The Mormons nicknamed them jackass cavalry. The Utah War of 1857-1858 was the largest military operation in the United States between the times of the Mexican War and the Civil War. On the 27th of September, before the proclamation was received, the first division of the army crossed Green River, having accomplished a march of a thousand miles in little more than two months. See the article in its original context from July 8, 1857, Page 5 Buy Reprints. Utah expedition, 1857-1858. But a juster appreciation of the constitution of the Mormon community begins to prevail, and with it comes a conviction that questions are involved in its relations to the parent government which are not exceeded in importance by any that have ever been agitated at Washington. Meanwhile, President Buchanan responded to rising criticism by appointing Lazarus Powell and Ben McCulloch to carry an amnesty proclamation to Utah. In spite of the posturing and bumbling of those involved, what seemed like an inevitable military confrontation was ultimately resolved peacefully. Going West to the Utah Territory Gunnison’s first sight of the western lands came as a member of the Captain Stansbury Utah Territory Expedition of 1849. Originally published as "The Utah Expedition" by the Arthur H. Clark Co. in 1958, this is a documentary history of this important military operation in 1857-58. It is established beyond question, that the initiated, clad in the preposterous costume before described, take an oath, in the presence of their Spiritual Head, to cherish eternal enmity towards the government of the United States until it shall have avenged the death of their prophet, Joseph Smith. An express reached him that same day, from Colonel Smith, by which he was informed of the approach of Colonel Albert S. Johnston, of the Second Cavalry, who had been detailed to take command of the expedition in the place of General Harney, and now sent orders that the troops should return to Blacks Fork, where he proposed to concentrate the entire army. The Utah expedition. (16) With the inauguration of President Abraham Lincoln in March, Utah Territory soon received a new set of more acceptable federal officials and settled into a fairly peaceful existence. Camp Floyd and the nearby civilian town of Fairfield represented the first sizable non-Mormon resident population in Utah. Another class of stragglers, and one most dangerous to the peace of the camp, was composed of the thousand teamsters who were discharged from employment on the supply-trains. Known variously as "Buchanan's Blunder," the "Mormon War," and the "Contractor's War," the U.S. Army's expedition to Utah during 1857-1858 was a significant event for all involved. Near Fort Laramie he was overtaken by Colonel Smith, whom he accompanied in his progress to the main body. ... 1857-1858. PRESIDENT (1857-1861. Their little town they named Eckelsville, after the Chief Justice. In this respect, and in the general character of the scenery, it bears much resemblance to the Tyrol. Perhaps the disposition of the camp would have been more in harmony with the scenery and the season, if the army had dreamed that the administration, which had launched it so recklessly into circumstances of such privation and danger, was about to turn its labors and sufferings into a farce, and to claim the approval of the country for an act of mistaken clemency, which was, in reality, a grave political error. In 1857 General Albert Sidney Johnston (1803–1862) was sent to oversee 2500 troops escorting new federal officials to Utah during a tense time between the Mormons and the federal government known as the Utah War. Last week, a sheep-counting expedition found a mysterious monolith deep in the Utah desert, and they warned the world to stay away. Find items in libraries near you. The Utah expedition. Since my letter of Dec. 1, nothing of particular interest has occurred in camp. The sufferings of his naked escort on the journey were severe. Anxious to expand the Spanish Empire to thwart the expansion of other European powers, and to enrich themselves, New Mexican authorities sent expeditions northward. Though at first perceived as likely to be permanent, the Move South was transformed into a tactical and temporary maneuver soon after word came that Kane had persuaded Cumming to come to Salt Lake City without the army. The office of Chief Justice was conferred on Judge D. R. Eckels, of Indiana, a person well fitted for the position by the circumstances of his early life, of the utmost determination, and whose judicial integrity was above suspicion. Accompanied by only thirty-five picked men, all volunteers, and by two guides, he started for Taos, November 27th, — an undertaking from which, at that season of the year, the most experienced mountaineers would have shrunk. In his perplexity, Colonel Alexander called a council of war, and, with its approval, resolved to commence a march towards Soda Springs, leaving Fort Bridger unmolested on his left. John Cradlebaugh, of Nevada, on the admission of Utah as a state; delivered in the House of Representatives, February 7, 1863 by: Cradlebaugh, John Published: (1863) Because the conflict resulted from misunderstandings that were distorted by time and distance, had the transcontinental telegraph been completed in 1857 instead of 1861, the expedition almost certainly would not have occurred. On this occasion he investigated the northern shore of Utah Lake and clearly saw what is today the Jordan River flowing some twenty-five miles northward into the Great Salt Lake. With the Cheyennes war had been waged by the United States for more than two years, which interfered seriously with the expedition for, during the month of June, a war-party from that tribe intercepted and dispersed the herd of beef-cattle intended for the use of the army. A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z. Walker, Ronald W. Review of Camp Floyd and the Mormons: The Utah War, by Donald R. Moorman and Gene A. On the contrary, he begins to appear as a man of great native strength and scope of mind, who understands the phases of human character and knows how to avail himself of the knowledge, and who has acquired spiritual dominion over one hundred and fifty thousand souls, combined with absolute temporal supremacy over fifty thousand of the number. The Utah War (1857–1858), also known as the Utah Expedition, Utah Campaign, Buchanan's Blunder, the Mormon War, or the Mormon Rebellion was an armed confrontation between Mormon settlers in the Utah Territory and the armed forces of the United States government.The confrontation lasted from May 1857 to July 1858. Sleet poured down upon the column from morning till night. A Constitution had been framed by a Convention assembled without the sanction of an enabling act, and was intrusted to George A. Smith and John Taylor, two of the Twelve Apostles of the Church, for presentation to Congress. It delayed, but did not prevent, the installation of Governor Alfred Cumming, and it had a significant impact on the territory, its predominantly Latter-day Saint inhabitants, and the Church itself. Utah Expedition Command Ambiguity,” Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 42 (Spring 2009): 30–64. Jesse A. Gove ... Concord, N. H. New Hampshire Historical Society, 1928. On the northern hank of the Sweetwater are the Rattlesnake Mountains, huge excrescences of rock, blistering out of an arid plain; on the southern bank, the hills which bear the name of the river, and are only exaggerations of the bluffs along the Platte. April 20, 2016. There the emigrant strikes his tent in the morning on the banks of a rivulet which finds its way, through the Platte, Missouri, and Mississippi, into the Gulf of Mexico, — and pitches it, at his next camp, upon a little creek which trickles into Green River, and at last, through the Colorado, into the Gulf of California. Logan Utah: Utah State University Press, 2010. It was the 16th of November when the vanguard reached that post, which the Mormons had abandoned the week before. Hole in the Rock crevasse looking down at Lake Powell.. On January 26, 1880, after six months of blasting and chiseling, an expedition of 250 Mormon Pioneers with their wagons and livestock descended through a rocky crevice known as the Hole in the Rock to the Colorado River below (now Lake Powell). The place selected by Colonel Johnston for the winter-quarters of the army was on the bank of Black’s Fork, about two miles above Fort Bridger, on a spot sheltered by high bluffs which rise abruptly from the bottom at a distance of five or six hundred yards from the channel of the stream. The banks of the Fork were fringed with willow brush and cottonwood trees, blasted in some places where the Mormons had attempted to deprive the troops of fuel. Read part two here and part three here. The rest of their contents was mostly flour and bacon. Brevet Brigadier-General Harney was assigned to the command-in-chief an officer of a rude force of character, amounting often to brutality, and careless as to those details of military duty which savor more of the accountant’s inkstand than of the drum and fife, but ambitious, active, and well acquainted with the character of the service for which he was detailed. From the frontier, at Fort Leavenworth, it sweeps over a broad rolling prairie to the Platte, a river shallow, but of great width, whose course is as straight as an arrow. The price of wood in Salt Lake City is from twelve to twenty dollars a cord. Especially if it’s a big-ass metal structure of unknown (though, okay, likely human) origin. All the beef cattle intended for the use of the army having been intercepted by the Cheyennes, it became necessary to kill those draught oxen for beef, which had survived the march. It would have been well, had his advice prevailed; but it was overruled, and the preparations for the expedition were commenced. The other divisions followed within the week, and the whole force was concentrated. In the early autumn of 1861 the troops marched eastward, and thus ended the famous Utah expedition. Remembering earlier difficulties with troops and perhaps swayed by the ardor of the recent reformation movement (see Reformation (LDS) of 1856-1857] of 1856-1857), Church leaders interpreted the army's unannounced coming as religious persecution and decided to resist. An Indian lodge had evidently been the model of the inventor. From this brief review of the natural features of the country, some idea may be formed of the intensity of the religious enthusiasm which has induced fifty thousand Mormon converts to traverse it, — many of them on foot and trundling hand-carts, — to seek a home among the valleys of Utah, in a region hardly more propitious; and some idea, also, of the difficulties which were to attend the march of the army. All Rights The Move South won media sympathy, but it also disrupted Latter-day Saint community and religious life and did little to increase the toleration for Mormon differences from mainstream American ideas and institutions. The Utah expedition, 1857-1858; letters of Capt. A party was dispatched at the same time to the Flathead country, in Oregon and Washington Territories, to procure horses to remount the dragoons, and to induce the traders in that region to drive cattle down to Fort Bridger for sale. In their political bearing, however, they are more important, and justly liable to the severest censure. Its convicts were received by Colonel Johnston and committed to imprisonment in the guard-tents of the army. Search for Library Items Search for Lists Search for Contacts Search for a Library. There they remained in shared and improvised housing until the Utah War was over. Brigham Young, still acting as governor, declared martial law and deployed the Nauvoo Legion to delay the troops with "scorched earth" tactics. Search. The office of Governor of the Territory was offered by the President to various persons, and finally accepted, July 11th, by Alfred Cumming, a brother of the Cumming of Georgia who fought multitudinous duels with McDuffie of South Carolina, all of which both parties survived. Thus the weary column toiled along until it reached the spot where it expected to be joined by Colonel Smith’s battalion, about fifty miles up Ham’s Fork. 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